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Bell Book & Conservation is the portfolio site of Adrienne E. Bell. Here you will find information about me, my career, and my projects to date.


Below is a brief listing of the various types of treatment actions I’ve performed over the course of my career:

Aqueous Treatments

  • Water-only baths utilizing hollytex, screen, or rayon papers for support; individual or multiple folios per support dependent upon penetration of water and movement of degradants
  • Solvent baths utilizing ethanol or isopropyl alcohol
    • ethanol baths are intended to begin moisture penetration into an object, break the surface tension of the water in later baths, or begin stain reduction process
    • isopropyl alcohol baths are intended to begin the mold remediation process and are not followed by water baths
  • Float washing and slant board washing for items with hydrophobic media or extreme fragility
  • Various combinations of the above dependent upon the overall needs of the textblock
  • Block washing

Iron Gall Ink Treatments

  • Calcium phytate


  • Aqueous
    • calcium hydroxide
    • calcium bicarbonate
  • Non-aqueous: BookKeeper®

Tape Removal/Stain Reduction

  • Removal of carrier utilizing heat or organic solvents
  • Removal of adhesive manually or via organic solvents
  • Reduction of staining/adhesive cross linking via organic solvent baths or suction platen/wedge
  • Removal of Barrow lamination utilizing organic solvents


  • Heat-set tissue—toned and untoned, always applied with heat
  • Japanese tissue/paper
    • varying weights, colors, and fibers in whatever combination of layers best suited to the object being mended
    • wheat or rice starch paste determined by the paper’s reaction to moisture
    • re-moistenable tissue utilizing Klucel G or methyl cellulose
    • drying under pressure or with heat dependent upon the stiffness of the paper and its strength

Fixing and/or Consolidating Inks

  • B-72 in toluene or acetone
  • Cyclododecane
  • Carrageen
  • Funori
  • Cationic/Anionic fixatives


  • Wheat starch paste
  • Various tissue weights and colors
  • Single piece or multi-piece composite object


Wide variety of sewing structures and abbreviations both supported and unsupported


  • Release layer
  • Extended linings using stretch linen, Irish linen, Japanese paper, or Iowa Case Paper to create comb linings, patch linings, or a full lining on both flat spines and raised bands
  • Abbreviated and full hollow typically created off the spine with Japanese paper, stretch linen, or western paper
  • Endbands
    • English primary in solid or two colors of silk or linen thread
    • German primary in solid or two tones of silk or linen thread
    • French in any variety of colors of silk thread
  • Rounding and backing


  • Board thickness and shaping as appropriate to period
  • Case binding or in boards
    • board attachment utilizing sewing structure, panel linings, or full linen linings
    • covering material being cloth, paper, leather, alum-tawed, or vellum
    • ¼ and ½ bindings in cloth, paper, marbled paper, and leather


  • Tooling—design and execution of period appropriate 16th, 17th, 18th, and 19th century patterns on leather and alum-tawed; all designs researched for authenticity prior to tooling
  • Titling—stamping directly on spine or on paper or leather labels with a variety of foil colors


  • Reback spines in cloth, double laminate Japanese paper, Japanese paper/Irish linen laminate, leather, and alum-tawed; for ½ and ¼ leather bindings, entire spine and/or corners replaced as well with the new leather meeting the marbled paper in a butt joint or transitioning under the marbled paper
  • Restoration of binding/boards utilized Japanese paper or leather; reattaching loose boards; repairing joints/hinges
  • Toning repairs and/or rebacks with watercolors, acrylics, colored pencils, pastels, and leather dyes
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